With the passage of the Violent Crime Act in 2008, the age of consent in Canada was raised from 14 to 16. It was the first time since 1892 that the age had been raised. The law applies to all forms of sexual activity and was developed with the aim of scaring off online predators. The law provides for an exception of proximity of age. As a result, 14- and 15-year-olds can legally consent to someone under five years older than them, and 12- and 13-year-olds can consent to a partner if the partner is less than two years older than them. There must be no relationship of authority, dependency or exploitation of the younger person for consent to be valid. Sexual acts with children under the age of 14 are illegal under Article 207, which prohibits sexual acts with a “child”, and a “child” is defined in Article 2(8) as a person under the age of 14. However, Article 209 mentions a “minor” defined in Article 2 (9) as a person under the age of 18, although it is not clear whether this Article refers only to sexual acts committed against a minor under the age of 18 or whether it can also be used to punish sexual acts with the minor:  Anyone who has sexual intercourse with a person under the age of 16 can be prosecuted (unless they are under 10, the age of criminal responsibility). This means that consensual sex between consenting people of the same age (for example, a 16-year-old and a 15-year-old) can also lead to prosecution for committing a sexual offence. For this reason, guidelines have been established on how a person who has had sexual intercourse with a person under the age of 16 can be followed appropriately based on the age of a person under the age of 16 at the time of sexual intercourse. The Crown Prosecution Service generally has the discretion not to prosecute if the facts of the case do not warrant it, and the judge (or judges, as the case may be) has the discretion to impose lighter or harsher sentences up to the limits of the law if the facts warrant it. It is rare for people aged 13 or older who voluntarily engage in sexual intercourse or sexual activity to be prosecuted as long as all those involved were of the same age and it was not about other issues such as violence, abuse or extortion.[ref. It is also not legal to have sex with related adults, but the penalties for it (up to two years) are considerably lighter than those for the rape of a child (two to six years, four to ten years if they worsen). The age of consent in Italy is 14 years and increases to 16 years if one participant occupies a position of authority or influence over the other (teacher, clergyman, etc.). In addition, it is illegal to engage in sexual acts if a person under the age of 14 is present to observe them, even if the minor does not participate. Sexual activity with a prostitute under the age of 18 is illegal in Italy. In addition, Italy has an age limit rule that allows 13-year-olds to legally consent to partners under three years older (or less). Only three countries fall into this category. The first is Niue, an ocean country where sexual activity can only be legal if the partners are 19 or older. The second is South Korea, where the age of consent is 20, and finally, there is Bahrain, where sexual relations are prohibited for people under 21. Bahrain has the highest legal age of consent in the world. Male homosexual acts were legalized in Denmark (lesbianism was never illegal) with an age of consent of 18, after a complete reform of the penal code in 1930; At the same time, the age of consent to heterosexual acts has been raised from 12 to 15.
In 1976, the age of consent for all acts was harmonized at 15. Sexual intercourse with a child under the age of 12 is punishable by double punishment, and sexual intercourse with a minor under the age of 18 is illegal for a person responsible for the child. Regarding the age of consent, this means that it is illegal to marry someone under the age of 20 without written parental permission. This is true regardless of the age of the partner, as Japan does not have a “near age” exception to the age of consent (i.e. even if one person is 20 and the other 19). In addition, some prefectures have specific laws that go beyond the above and apply only to that prefecture. For example, Tokyo has a child welfare law that prohibits an adult from engaging in sexual activity with anyone under the age of 17, but this only applies to Tokyo.